12. Intangible assets and goodwill

in thousand EUR   Goodwill
licences and
customer portfolios
At 1 January 2020     12 319   7 957   20 276
Additions       126   126
Disposals       –72   –72
Currency effects       –554   –554
At 31 December 2020     12 319   7 457   19 776
Additions     293   1 073   1 366
Change in consolidation scope 1   264   2 266     2 530
Disposals       –1 285   –1 285
Reclassifications     108   –108  
Currency effects   2   20   31   53
At 31 December 2021   266   15 006   7 168   22 440
Accumulated amortization and impairment
At 1 January 2020     10 840   5 922   16 762
Charge for the year     282   173   455
Disposals       –72   –72
Currency effects       –19   –19
At 31 December 2020     11 122   6 004   17 126
Charge for the year     281   30   311
Change in consolidation scope 1     718     718
Reclassifications     5   –5  
Currency effects     7   20   27
At 31 December 2021     12 133   6 049   18 182
Carrying amount                
At 31 December 2020     1 197   1 453   2 650
At 31 December 2021   266   2 873   1 119   4 258
1 Please refer to note 32 for further details about the investment in a subsidiary

Other intangible assets mainly include forest concessions and software.

Accounting policies

Acquired goodwill and acquired intangible assets with indefinite useful lives are recognized as assets at the date of the acquisition. After initial recognition, these positions are measured at cost less any accumulated impairment losses. They are not amortized, but annually tested for impairment – or when the circumstances indicate that the carrying value may be impaired.

Forest concessions are classified as intangible assets, as the right to direct the use of the concession is not with the Group, but with the government or the land owner. Other intangible assets have a finite useful life and are carried at cost less accumulated amortization and impairment loss. Amortization is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate the cost over their estimated useful lives of 12 to 50 years.

Valuation process for goodwill

The Group’s impairment test for goodwill and intangible assets with indefinite lives is based on value-in-use calculations. The key assumptions used to determine the recoverable amount for the different cash generating units are disclosed in below. The projections are based on knowledge and experience and also on judgements made by management as to the probable economic development of the relevant markets.

Carbon & Energy

As a result of the purchase accounting from the acquisition of remaining 60 % interest in MIL Energia Renovável Ltda. (see Note 32), a goodwill of EUR 0.3 million was recognized and allocated to the cash generating unit "Carbon & Energy". The value-in-use calculation was done by an independent external valuation firm in Brazil. As a result of the analysis, management did not identify an impairment for this cash-generating unit to which goodwill of EUR 0.3 million is allocated.

None of the goodwill recognized is expected to be deductible for income tax purposes.

Key assumption used in value-in-use calculations and sensitivity to changes in assumptions

The calculation of value in use for Carbon & Energy CGU is most sensitive to the following assumptions:

  • Discount rate
  • Gross margin
Discount rate

Discount rate represent the current market assessment of the risks specific to Carbon & Energy CGU, taking into consideration the time value of money and individual risks of the underlying assets that have not been incorporated in the cash flow estimates. The discount rate calculation is based on the specific circumstances of the Group and its operating segments and is derived from its weighted average cost of capital (WACC). The WACC takes into account both debt and equity. The cost of equity is derived from the expected return on investment by the Group’s investors. The cost of debt is based on the interest-bearing borrowings the Group is obliged to service. Segment-specific risk is incorporated by applying individual beta factors. The beta factors are evaluated annually based on publicly available market data. In determining the pre-tax weighted average cost of capital (WACC) a discount rate of 15.13 % has been applied considering the following inputs:

Unlevered beta factor   0.80
Risk free rate   2.5%
Equity risk premium   5.5%
Debt/Equity ratio   71.5%
Tax rate   23.8%

A rise in the pre-tax discount rate to 15.63 % (i.e., +0.5 %) in the Carbon & Energy unit would result in a further impairment.

Gross margin

Gross margins are based on average values achieved in years preceding the beginning of the budget period. The gross margins for the Carbon & Energy CGU used for 2022 and 2023 correspond to 10.3 %. From 2024 to 2027 the gross margin used was 30.0 %. These are increased over the budget period for anticipated efficiency improvements. Decreased demand can lead to a decline in the gross margin. A decrease in the gross margin by 1.0 % would result in a further impairment in the Carbon and Energy CGU.