17. Trade and other receivables

in thousand EUR   2021   2020
Trade receivables, third parties   6 182   9 517
Trade receivables, associates   4 224   12
Allowance for expected credit losses   –681   –1 029
Total trade receivables net   9 725   8 500
Other current receivables   4 032   3 023
Total trade and other receivables net   13 757   11 523

The carrying amounts of the receivables approximate to their fair values. Other receivables mainly contain credit balances from governments, therefore the expected credit loss is immaterial.

Allowance for credit losses for trade receivables
in thousand EUR   2021   2020
At 1 January   1 029   785
Increase of allowance for credit losses   128   490
Reversal of allowance for credit losses     –0
Utilisation of loss allowances   –475   –20
Currency effects   –1   –226
At 31 December   681   1 029

The exposure to credit risk is covered with the impairment for expected credit losses under IFRS 9 on trade receivables. It contains collectively assessed positions (Lifetime ECL), using the simplified approach, as well as individually assessed positions.

The individual allowances for credit losses include receivables past due more than 12 months, where the Group is in negotiation with the debtors for a solution.

The standard payment terms for trade receivables are in most instances Cash Against Documents (CAD) or Letter of Credit (L/C). The trade receivables are not interest-bearing, and the Group considers them to be credit impaired when internal or external information give cause for serious concern to receive the outstanding amount. The credit ratings for the lifetime ECL base on the aging buckets of the trade receivables. Taking into consideration the terms and conditions established with customers, the lifetime expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables is as follows:

in thousand EUR   Expected
credit loss
default rate
Not overdue   0.5–0.6%   9 538   7 640
Less than 30 days overdue   0.5–0.6%   771   605
31 to 60 days overdue   1.7–2.0%   38   66
61 to 180 days overdue   10.0%   28   138
More than 180 days overdue   15.0%   31   142
Total trade receivables gross       10 406   9 529
Allowance for individual impairments       –616   –938
Allowance for expected credit losses       –65   –91
Total trade receivables net       9 725   8 500
Accounting policies

Trade accounts receivable are recognized initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortized cost less allowances. The allowances base on the simplified approach of full lifetime expected credit losses as defined by the impairment model of IFRS 9. To calculate these allowances the trade accounts receivables are clustered into ageing buckets and each of these buckets weighted with a certain percentage. Doubtful accounts are assessed individually to analyze if a significant increase in credit risk occurred and an individual impairment is needed. Indications for such impairments are substantial financial problems on the part of the customer, a declaration of bankruptcy, or a significant delay in payment occurring.